SILKS
Sericulture Information Linkages
And Knowledge System

Central Silk Board, Minisitry of Textiles, Government of India, Bangalore
North Tripura, Tripura

Scheme to Help

Implementation of Catalytic Development Programme during XII Plan

(Operation modalities of sub components along-with physical and financial targets)

Mulberry

The diversity of Indian silk is enviable as India is the only country blessed with all the four types of silk viz., Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga and among these, Muga silk is unique to India. The country accounts for a little over 17% of the total World silk production, producing 23,060 MT of raw silk (end of XI Plan) and stands second in the world silk production. Indian silks are broadly categorized into Mulberry and non-Mulberry (Vanya) silks. Mulberry silk is the most popular and technically equipped as a viable enterprise and contributes to 79% of total raw silk production. Production of Mulberry raw silk is mainly confined to the States of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir which together accounts for 97% of the total Mulberry silk production. Three categories of Mulberry silkworms are reared in the country viz. Bivoltine which produces high quality silk of import substitute 3A grade, Improved Cross Breed capable of producing 2A to 3A grade silk for consumption in powerlooms, and Cross Breed / Multivoltine, which are much easier to rear, hardy and adopted to fluctuations in the environmental conditions.

Realizing the production potential of sericulture in the country and a need to meet the gap in demand and supply, a target to bring additional 59,331 ha (1,48,328 acres) of Mulberry plantation is suggested for XII Plan. Out of this, 15,600 ha (39,000 acres) would be taken up through the CDP programmes and the remaining through the MGNREGS, RKVY and other similar programmes of Central and State departments. From the already available plantation and by providing supporting infrastructure for the new plantation, the production of mulberry silk is targeted to reach 23,000 MT by the end of XII Plan. This includes production of 5,000 MT Bivoltine silk of 3A grade and 6,060 MT Improved Cross Breed of 2A to 3A grade which can be used for weaving in power looms, replacing the imported silk. This ambitious targets call for additional interventions through CDP. With the support from CDP, and tapping of funds from other resources, the national average productivity of silk is expected to increase from the current level of 90.55 kg / ha to 95.67 kg / ha. at the end of XII Plan. However, the productivity of Bivoltine silk is expected to be higher than 100 kg / ha. The Table below gives the status of area under food plants and production of raw silk at end of XI Plan, and projections for XII Plan under Mulberry sector.

(Raw Silk in MT)
  #   Performance Indicators Achievement (End of XI Plan)

(2011-12)
Targets for XII Plan Anticipated increase

Over XI Plan
I Mulberry Plantation (Lakh Ha.) 1.81 2.40 33 %
II Mulberry Raw Silk Production      
  Bivoltine (3A and above grade) 1,685 5,000 197 %
  Improved Cross Breed (ICB – 2A to 3A grade) 2,980 6,060 103 %
  Cross Breed (below 2A grade silk) 13,607 11,940 Upgradation to ICB
  Total Mulberry Raw Silk 18,272 23,000 26 %

The components proposed under Mulberry Seed and Cocoon sector are focused on production of Bivoltine and Improved Cross Breed (ICB) silk only during XII Plan, and hence no assistance of any type under these sectors will be extended for production of Cross Breed silk. As could be seen from the above Table that, the Cross Breed silk production of 13,607 MT by end of XI Plan will get scaled down to 11,940 MT by end of XII Plan as substantial volume of Cross Breed silk will be upgraded to ICB as per XII Plans strategy. For maintaining the level of multivoltine / Cross Breed production, or reduction due to upgradation to ICB, the support already provided under CDP till XI Plan will be optimally utilized. Besides, efforts will be made for maximization of benefits from existing capacity for improving the quality of CB silk. Resources will also be tapped from other schemes of the State and Central Government.

Seed Sector (For Bivoltine & ICB)

The growth trajectory of silk production could be sustained only through quality silkworm seed. Silkworm seed in the country is produced by various stakeholders i.e., Central Silk Board(CSB), State Sericulture Departments, NGOs and Private entrepreneurs. Central Silk Board plays a leadership role for nucleus, basic and commercial silkworm seed with intrinsic quality parameters in all spheres of silkworm seed production. The silkworm seed production system in India recognizes three generations, namely, nucleus, basic and commercial seed and provides adequate safeguards for quality assurance in the seed multiplication chain to maintain the vigour and purity of breeds as it flows from the breeders to the farmers. Silkworm seed industry is highly competitive thereby ensuring an efficient and responsible sector that offers farmers a continuous supply of high-yielding hybrids suitable for different environmental conditions for producing cocoon crops and products that will continue to meet the changing consumer demands.

Present scenario

National Silkworm Seed Organization (NSSO) is involved in the production of lion’s share of bivoltine hybrid seed and accounts for 70% of total bivoltine silkworm seed produced. The State Departments of sericulture in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu also produce the bivoltine silkworm hybrid seed. About 75% of the commercial seed production is in the hands of Private Seed Producers producing mostly of cross breed silkworm seed. In the wake of implementation of Central Silk Board (Amendment) Act 2006, the maintenance of quality of silkworm seed is prime importance for the CSB. NSSO is involved in the maintenance, multiplication of basic seed of parental breeds of silkworm hybrids (both bivoltine and multivoltine) as per the quality norms of seed act regulations and supplies to various seed producing agencies.

The silkworm seed sector is geared up to increase the silkworm seed production to 32.78 crore dfls. by 2016-17 from the current (2012-13) production of 27.58 crore dfls. About 73% of the total silkworm seed requirement in the country is met by the registered seed producers (RSPs) in the private sector, while the State departments of sericulture and National Silkworm Seed Organization contribute 18 % and 9 %, respectively.

In consonance with the silk production target set for the XII Plan, the commercial seed requirement during the XII Plan is given below:

(Unit : Lakh Nos.)

Year Bivoltine ICB CB Total
2012-13 263 477 2,018 2,758
2013-14 310 557 2,013 2,880
2014-15 423 607 1,971 3,001
2015-16 519 717 1,885 3,121
2016-17 625 808 1,845 3,278

Substantial part of the silkworm seed (State: 25%; CSB: 11% and LSPs: 64%) would have to be produced in State and private grainages (LSPs). For undertaking this enormous task, the State and private sectors would be strengthened on certain critical areas, besides facilitating enhanced private participation in seed production. Moreover, the State and private seed production centres have to be prepared for implementing the recently enacted Seed Act. Measures have to be taken to revive the existing non-functional seed production units in the State and private sector by CSB for augmenting the seed production. These issues will be addressed during XII Plan through following interventions under CDP:

  • Franchise disinfection programme of NSSO.
  • Support to construct rearing houses for Adopted Seed Rearers(ASRs) of NSSO
  • Revolving Capital fund support for State grainages and RSPs
  • Assistance for purchasing seed testing equipments for State grainages and private RSPs
  • Support to strengthen basic seed farms of States.
  • Support to upgrade State and private commercial seed production units

All these components are basically meant to support production of Bivoltine and ICB silkworm seeds only. However, seed support for the Mulberry sector will continue for all varieties in order to achieve overall production target as male parent of bivoltine silkworm is required for cross breed silk production.

The component-wise objectives / description under the mulberry seed sector is as follows :-

1.Franchise disinfection programme of NSSO.

a) Brief description

This is an on-going programme of NSSO implemented under the Central sector during the XI plan, and proposed to be taken up under CDP during XII Plan period through private sector involvement. Under this programme, the Franchisee CRCs of NSSO (100units) will supply chawki worms to farmers ensuring high productivity. The commercial farmers covered under this programme are required to disinfect their rearing house before supply of chawki worms for ensuring crop stability and success. Seri polyclinics will be attached to the Franchisee CRC units to undertake the disinfection work. Each polyclinic will be provided with a power sprayer and a two / three wheelers for conducting the disinfection of rearing houses in their command areas. During the XII plan, 100 such units will be developed @ Rs.1.10 lakh per unit. The estimated cost of Rs.1.10 cr. will be fully met by CSB. The component will be directly implemented by NSSO.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • The franchisee should use disiFranchise disinfection programme of NSSOnfectants authorized by CSB and NRDC and the quantity of the disinfectants and the method of disinfection should be as per recommendation of Research Institutes of CSB of particular zone.
  • The cost of disinfectants should be borne by the farmers.
  • The service charge for disinfection collected by the franchisee should not exceed 10%.
  • Support is extended only to bivoltine and ICB farmers.
    The details of activities under the component along with cost break-up are indicated in the Unit Cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.
c) Physical Targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 100%
Special category 100%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Target Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 110,000 100 CRCs 1.10 1.10
NW 110,000
C & W 110,000
Eastern 110,000
NE 110,000

2. Support to construct rearing houses for Adopted Seed Rearers (ASRs) of NSSO

a) Brief description

The seed cocoons (required for layings production in NSSO) are produced through the selected Adopted Seed Rearers (ASRs). Some of the seed rearers do not have good rearing houses to take up the seed cocoon rearing. Since small quantities of DFLs are used for seed rearing, the rearing house will be small with reduced unit cost. Hence, under this component 275 seed rearers will be supported for constructing specially designed small rearing houses @ Rs.1.20 to 3.00 lakh per unit. The sharing pattern will be 50:50 by CSB and beneficiaries. An amount of Rs.4.62 crores is estimated for the component with a CSB share of Rs.2.31 cr. This will be implemented by NSSO.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • The beneficiary should use specially designed rearing house model suggested by NSSO (Central Silk Board) by meeting 50% cost of rearing house and rear the recommended quantity of layings per batch.
  • The beneficiary should be a recognized ASR of NSSO, and attached to any of SSPCs of NSSO.
  • (S)He should be a seed cocoon producer registered under the Central Silk Board Amendment (Act) 2006 with a valid registration certificate issued by the Chair person, Registration committee.
  • The type of activities needed under the programme along with its cost break-up are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.
c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 50%
Special category 50% 50%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South  200,000 & 300,000 275 Nos. 2.31 2.31 4.62
NW 1,25,000
C & W 1,25,000
Eastern 1,20,000
NE 1,20,000

3. Revolving Capital fund support for State Grainages and RSPs

a) Brief description

Working capital plays an important role in deciding the economic performance of the grainage. The silkworm seed production centres in DOS and private sectors often face difficulty in procuring quality seed cocoons due to shortage of Working Capital Fund. All the NSSO grainages are provided with Working Capital fund. Hence, it is proposed to replicate the same in State and Private grainages by providing one time Working Capital support to 485 grainages. Assistance @ Rs.1.35 to 5.00 lakhs per grainage based on production capacity in different zones shall be extended with a sharing pattern of 50:50 to be shared by CSB & State. The total cost estimated is Rs.13.06 cr. with a CSB share of Rs.6.56 cr.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • The cost of seed cocoons required to produce commercial seed shall be covered under the component.
  • The beneficiary should produce the silkworm eggs at optimum recovery and should undertake sufficient number of production cycles per year required to avoid losses.
  • The stakeholder should be a seed producer registered under the Central Silk Board Amendment (Act) 2006 with a valid registration certificate issued by the Chair person, Registration committee.
  • The amount of Revolving Fund will be decided by the joint Review Committee comprising representatives of CSB and States. The Committee will decide the amount of Revolving Fund required based on the seed production capacity, crop cycle and number of crop per year.
  • Revolving fund utilized and flow back of revolving fund will be closely monitored.

The activities required under the component along with its cost break-up details are indicated in the Unit Cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category (Private and State Grainages) 50% 50%
Special category (Private and State Grainages) 80% 20%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Target Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 300,000 & 500,000 485 Nos. 6.56 6.50 13.06
NW 300,000
C & W 300,000
Eastern 135,000 & 270,000
NE 135,000

4. Assistance for purchasing seed testing equipments for State grainages and private RSPs

a) Brief description

Under the Seed Act, it is mandatory for all the grainages to supply only disease free layings for which the testing facilities would have to be established in the grainages. In order to support them to establish this facility in the grainage, assistance will be provided for modernizing/developing seed testing labs, procuring equipments, etc. 310 grainages will be supported during the XII Plan period @ 1.75 lakh per grainage. The sharing pattern for private grainages would be 50:50 between CSB and State, and for State grainages, the sharing pattern would be 40:40:20 between CSB, State & Beneficiary. The total cost estimated is Rs.3.10 cr. with a CSB share of Rs.2.42 cr.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • The commercial seed producers will be covered under the component.
  • The beneficiary should be a seed producer registered under the Central Silk Board Amendment (Act) 2006 with a valid registration certificate issued by the Chair person, Registration committee.

The activities required under the component along with its cost break-up details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category (Private and State Grainages) 60% 20% 20%
60% 40%
Special category (Private and State Grainages) 80% 10% 10%
80% 20%
Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 175,000 280 Nos. 2.92 0.90 0.90 4.72
NW 175,000
C & W 175,000
Eastern 175,000
NE 175,000

5. Support to strengthen Basic Seed Farms of States.

a) Brief description

Many basic seed farms under the State sector are obsolete for want of necessary resources, and technical support. On the other hand, many others do not have the requisite facilities to undertake the complex job of basic seed multiplication. The Seed Act prescribes for adhering to certain quality norms in seed farms for ensuring disease freeness in the next multiplication level. Hence, the component has been proposed to strengthen the facilities of 35 State seed farms @ Rs.5.00 lakh per seed farm with a sharing pattern of 50:50 between CSB and State. The total cost estimated is Rs.1.75 cr. with the CSB share of Rs.1.03 cr.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • The government basic seed farms will be covered under the component.
  • The farm should have been involved in multiplying the basic seeds for producing commercial silkworm hybrid seed.
  • A joint verification committee will select the unit and suggest the requirement after assessing the existing infrastructure , equipment and other facilities.

The activities required under the component along with its cost break-up details are indicated in the Unit Cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

Sharing pattern

Category

CSB

State

Beneficiary

General category

50%

50%

Special category

80%

20%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees)

Physical  Targets

Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)

CSB

State

Beneficiary

Total

South

5,00,000

35 Nos.

1.03

0.72

1.75

NW

5,00,000

C & W

5,00,000

Eastern

5,00,000

NE

5,00,000

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

6. Support to upgrade State and private commercial seed production units.

a) Brief description

Under the Seed Act, there are strict norms for the production of commercial seed in all the seed production centres, including private units. However, it is observed that most of the grainages in State and private sectors are not logistically equipped to take this onerous task nor they have the resources to equip with additional facilities. Under this circumstance, it is proposed to support the State and private grainages to up-grade their facilities to produce seed in conformity with the quality norms prescribed under the CSB (Amendment) Act 2006. The assistance will be for up-gradation of infrastructure, procurement of equipments etc. 310 grainages will be supported @ Rs.3.50 lakh per grainage. The sharing pattern for private grainages would be 40:40:20 between CSB, State and Pvt. Grainages, and for State grainages, the sharing pattern would be 50:50 between CSB and State. The total cost estimated is Rs.10.85 cr. with a CSB share of Rs.4.83 cr.

b) Technical specifications / operational guidelines
  • Proposed to provide one time assistance to the graineurs in recurring / modernizing the equipment.
  • Support could be extended only to the registered seed producers under the central Silk Board (Amendment) act 2006
  • Only bivoltine and ICB grainages will be supported under the scheme

The activities required under the programme along with its cost break-up details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below

Sharing pattern

Category

CSB

State

Beneficiary

General category (Private and State Grainages)

40%

40%

20%

50%

50%

Special category (Private and State Grainages)

80%

10%

10%

80%

20%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees)

Physical  Targets

Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)

CSB

State

Beneficiary

Total

South

3,50,000

310 Units

4.83

3.97

2.05

10.85

NW

3,50,000

C & W

3,50,000

Eastern

3,50,000

NE

3,50,000

Cocoon Sector (For Bivoltine & ICB)

Production of quality raw silk depends upon the quantity and quality of mulberry leaves produced and in turn on cocoons produced. Even-though cocoon production level in the country has increased to a great extent during the previous plan period, still there exists a wide gap between the actual yield obtained by the rearers and the production level actually possible with the existing modern technology. The gap is mainly attributed to bio-physical (dfls, rearing practices, soil and other constraints in production of good quality leaf, pests diseases) and socio-economic constraints (inputs availability, separate rearing house, credit facilities, profitability, attitudes, traditions, risks involved, technical know how, transport, marketing and other infrastructural facilities). The farmers’ inability to take up the recommended practices due to financial and other constraints within a stipulated time and in stipulated quantity could cause a noticeable decline in output.

The major constraints noticed for getting higher yields are :

  • Pest (uzi fly) and disease of silkworms
  • Non-availability of good quality of leaf and improper disinfection of the rearing house,
  • Water scarcity and high temperature during summer
  • High cost of silkworm rearing equipments and difficulty in procuring rotary mountages,
  • Lack of technical guidance by extension system
  • Non-availability of inputs in time and difficulty in obtaining dfls. etc.

Therefore, in order to address the above issues and also to achieve the set goal during XII Plan, Catalytic Development Programme has targeted various areas under Mulberry cocoon sector as given below :

  • Enriching the sources of availability of improved variety Mulberry seed cuttings required for expansion of area under Mulberry,
  • Enhancing cocoon production by way of increasing Mulberry wealth in the form of tree plantation typical to northern parts of the country which do not support largely for raising bush type of plantation.
  • Increasing the dfls uptake of farmers by increasing the quality leaf production through rejuvenation of existing mulberry tree plantation.
  • Introduction of farm / rearing mechanization with labour reduction devices / equipments
  • Enriching the source of availability of improved variety saplings required towards quick replacement of old and low yielding Mulberry varieties with improved varieties at farmers’ level, besides expansion of area under Mulberry plantation.
  • Conservation and efficient management of water for the effective utility towards higher Mulberry leaf production per unit area by adopting appropriate usage technique / measures.
  • Enhancing the productivity and assisting the sericulturists for timely completion of various sericulture operations, besides conservation of energy by the way of providing silkworm rearing equipment and farm implements.
  • Reducing the silkworm cocoon crop losses due to diseases by taking appropriate prophylactic measures.
  • Enhancing cocoon quality and productivity by promoting adoption of recommended models of rearing houses.
  • Ensuring the crop stability and cocoon yield by promoting well equipped and well managed Chawki Rearing Centres (CRCs) for scientific handling of silkworm eggs and rearing of young-age silkworms.
  • Application of vermi-culture technology for the recycling of sericultural wastes as manure for the improvement soil health and saving chemical fertilizer costs.
  • Providing assistance for installation of solar systems for basic lighting facility in respect of North Eastern States

Based on the brainstorming discussions with States, CSB and stakeholders, it is proposed to continue the Mulberry cocoon sector components in XII Plan with increased scope and by introducing certain additional / innovative sub-components. While there is a slight enhancement of subsidy on the part of CSB in respect of three components viz., disinfection, rearing houses and CRC in XII Plan based on the request from States and stakeholders which is applicable to general category States, the sharing pattern for Special Status States remains unchanged at 80:10:10(CSB: State: Beneficiary). The Central Silk Board will coordinate and implement this sector of components with the help of State Sericulture Departments, CBOs, reputed NGOs/Cooperative Societies, SHGs etc.

During XII Plan, another important change proposed is the extension of CDP benefits to the farmers who are not having cultivable land but undertaking rearing activities by purchasing leaves or producing leaves from leased land. There are many such farmers associated with the sericulture industry. They will be made eligible for all the benefits under various components of CDP like rearing house, equipments etc; however, with certain specific terms and conditions to ensure that the facilities provided would be utilized for a prescribed period of time.

The following components are proposed under Mulberry cocoon sector, which are aimed at production of Bivoltine and Improved Cross Breed silks only :

  • Support for mulberry plantation development
  • Assistance for irrigation and other water conservation & usage techniques
  • Supply of rearing appliances (including improved mountages) / farm equipments to farmers.
  • Supply of quality disinfecting materials and other crop protection measures for farmers.
  • Assistance for construction of rearing houses.
  • Assistance for maintenance of chawki gardens, construction of Chawki Rearing Centre buildings (CRCs) and procurement of chawki rearing equipments.
  • Production units for Biological inputs / Door-to-door service agents for disinfection and inputs supply and assistance for sericulture poly-clinics:
  • Support for development of Kisan Nurseries
  • Maintenance cost for Mulberry plantation raised during X & XI Plan for NE and Hilly States.
  • Support for construction of Vermi Compost sheds.
  • Assistance towards fencing of Mulberry gardens in NE States.
  • Assistance towards expansion of Rearing Houses for construction of Mounting Halls in NE States.
  • Support for increasing the yield of existing rainfed garden through water conservation techniques

The component-wise objectives / description, operational guidelines, physical targets and financial projections are indicated below :

1. Support for Mulberry plantation development:

a) Brief Description

Among several factors that contribute to successful silkworm rearing such as temperature, humidity, disease free seed, hygiene etc., supply of nutritious mulberry leaves as feed is vital. Mulberry is a perennial crop and once it is properly established, it can come to full yielding capacity in the second or third year and last for 15 to 20 years, without significant reduction in leaf yield.

During XI Plan period, there has been decline in Mulberry area in major sericulture producing States particularly in Karnataka due to various reasons such as fast urbanization, creation of SEZs, depletion of water table, higher input costs, increase in labour wages, due to migration of youths from rural areas to urban areas etc. Further, in order to achieve the targeted production of 23,000 MT of mulberry raw silk at the end of XII Plan, with special focus on Bivoltine and ICB silk, the Mulberry area has to be enhanced to 2.40 lakh ha from the present level of 1.81 lakh ha . Keeping this in view and considering the scope for Mulberry development in other potential new areas of traditional as well as nontraditional states, the existing programme is proposed to be continued during XII Plan, at least to support a part of area expansion targets of XII Plan.

During XI Plan, the component for plantation development was implemented with the unit cost of Rs 9,000/- per acre. Since the input cost have increased in the recent years, the cost has been revised to Rs.14,000/- during XII plan.

During XII Plan, the component supports development of 39,000 acres of Mulberry plantation with a unit cost of Rs.14,000/- per acre for raising plantation involving inputs such as chemical fertilizers , farm yard manure, pesticides, etc. Individual farmers can raise plantation in their land or public places like Panchayat lands or vacant forest lands, etc. Raising of Mulberry plantation is also proposed to be dovetailed with other similar programmes taken up by other Departments of Govt. of India / State. The assistance will be provided to raise new Mulberry plantations or for replacement of old Mulberry varieties with new varieties aimed at production of Bivoltine and ICB silks only. The farmers, can buy Mulberry saplings from sources like Kisan nursery or they themselves can develop plantation through cuttings also.

Under this component, raising or maintenance of tree plantations, replacement of old Mulberry varieties with new varieties etc. are envisaged. The assistance proposed to be provided will depend upon the nature of plantation and its maintenance but well within the approved unit cost. During the XII Plan, for raising 39,000 acres of mulberry plantation, the total amount required works out to Rs.54.60 crores (@ Rs14,000/acre), 50% subsidy of which is proposed to be provided by Govt. of India (CSB) [Rs.29.65 cr.] and the rest 50% has to be equally borne by beneficiary and State (25:25). For special status States, the subsidy will be 80:10:10 for CSB, State and Beneficiary respectively as in XI Plan.

b) Technical specifications / Operational guidelines
  • The Department of Sericulture will identify the potential farmers who have preferably water sources to raise Mulberry plantation. The identified farmers must be provided with passbooks or any other documents for proving their identity as a sericulture farmer.
  • The Field Officer concerned shall certify the works undertaken based on her/his visit before and after implementing the programme. An undertaking may be obtained from the farmers to the effect that sericulture occupation will be continued for a minimum period of 3 years after availing subsidy under the programme.
  • In case of tree plantation, the assistance of Rs.14,000/- is provided for raising and maintenance of tree plantation for 300 trees. However, the subsidy amount will be disbursed according to number of trees on pro-rata basis subject to a minimum number of 100 trees per beneficiary.
  • In case, the plantation is raised by planting seed cutting directly, the assistance of Rs.14,000/- will cover the cost of seed cuttings (250 kg or 6000 No of cuttings), inputs (FYM, fertilizers, chemicals etc), labour, transport and maintenance for 4 to 5 months.
  • The assistance is provided to raise new Mulberry plantations or replacement of old Mulberry varieties with new varieties. Only high yielding Mulberry varieties should be recommended for particular agro-climatic region for production of Bivoltine / ICB silk.
  • Assistance is also provided for gap filling of existing Mulberry plantation on pro rata basis.
  • Raising of plantation is also proposed to be dovetailed with similar programmes taken up by other Ministries / Departments. States may avail support of other programmes like RKVY, MGNREGS etc., to reduce the burden on labour wages involved in plantation development, as per the actual plantation development cost.
  • One beneficiary can avail the assistance upto one ha. only. However, depending upon the rearing capacity of the individual farmer and land availability, assistance can be extended further on pro-rata basis, to support large scale farming / Seri Business Enterprises..
  • Each State should devise norms indicating minimum number of plants per unit area according to the plant spacing for providing subsidy to the farmers.
  • The leaf productivity of the supported beneficiaries must be recorded for a minimum period of 3 years
    The activities required under the component along with its cost break-up details are indicated in the Unit Cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.
c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern

Category

CSB

State

Beneficiary

General category

50%

25%

25%

Special category

80%

10%

10%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees)

Physical  Targets

Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)

CSB

State

Beneficiary

Total

South

14,000

39,000 acres

29.65

12.48

12.47

54.60

NW

14,000

C & W

14,000

Eastern

14,000

NE

14,000

2. Assistance for irrigation and other water conservation & usage techniques.

a) Brief Description

Sericulture is practiced mostly by depending on groundwater as a source of irrigation. Growing demand for groundwater, substitution of labour intensive lifts by capital-intensive electrical pump sets, increase in well density and frequent failure of monsoon rains, have resulted in reduction in water table and thereby put the farmers in distress condition. As mulberry is a water intensive plant, efficient use of water is imminent under the water scarcity conditions.

Considering the above facts, during XI Plan, the irrigation component was implemented, to cover all types of irrigation, such as drip, tube/open wells, shallow wells, ponds, farm ponds, surface tanks and similar water harvesting systems including ground level water storage tanks & soil moisture conservation methods, for different types of structure for different seri-zones.

The component was very popular in the field, particularly in southern States. The component was implemented with a unit cost of Rs.50,000/- per ha ., of which CSB share/subsidy was Rs 25,000/- per ha. The subsidy was given on prorata to cover upto one hectare of plantation according to the nature of irrigation system and also the area proposed to be covered with the irrigation system by the farmers. During XII Plan, the area limit has been made flexible in order to bring big farmers / rearers who have large area holding to practice sericulture.

During XII Plan, it is proposed to make the area limit flexible to assist big farmers also. The component is to cover all types of irrigation, such as drip, tube/open wells, shallow wells, ponds, farm ponds, surface tanks and similar water harvesting systems including ground level water storage tanks & soil moisture conservation methods for different types of structure for different seri-zones. The subsidy is proposed to be given according to the nature of irrigation system and also the area proposed to be covered by the farmers. During XII Plan, it is proposed to cover 25,000 acres with various types of irrigation at a total cost of Rs.72.50 crore with unit costs ranging from Rs.25,000/- to Rs.30,000/- per acre in different seri zones, of which CSB share is Rs.37.68 crores. The sharing pattern is 50:25:25 / 80:10:10 for General / Special category states as in XI Plan.

b. Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • Under drip irrigation, only the recommended design of main and lateral drip lines should be installed depending upon the type of mulberry plantation and nature of land.
  • The most appropriate irrigation system (whether drip or any other irrigation system) may be provided depending upon the zonal requirements.
  • The DOSs in the respective States have to identify the beneficiaries and ensure that the beneficiaries bear their share. The states may also arrange loan through banks / financial institutions to the farmers
  • The States’ DoSs are also required to identify manufacturers for their state to commission the irrigation system desired at farmers’ level
  • A farmer shall be eligible for subsidy only if basic requirements like water resource is available
  • Manufacturers should provide detailed operational and maintenance manuals at the time of installation.
  • The farmers shall be free to select the manufacturers / suppliers maintained by the State department for installing irrigation system of any kind.
  • The State DOSs may ensure supply of good quality irrigation system having Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) marking and proper after sales service to the satisfaction of the farmers.
  • Subsidy will be released on pro-rata basis to cover both small scale as well as large scale farmers subject to the approved unit cost for the zone.
  • Subsidy is to be given according to the nature of Irrigation System, the cost of the system in the particular area and also the area proposed to be covered.
  • The State/beneficiary shall give certificate to the effect that he has not availed subsidy of any nature for installation of water conservation techniques for Mulberry from any other Government Department. A certificate to that effect may be obtained from the beneficiary .
  • The activities required under the component along with its cost is indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.
c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%
Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Target Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 30,000 25,000 acres 37.68 17.41 17.41 72.50
NW 25,000
C & W 25,000
Eastern 25,000
NE 25,000

3. Supply of rearing appliances (including improved mountages) / farm equipment to farmers.

a. Brief Description

Various equipment and machineries are used in sericulture farming to enhance productivity and conserve energy required for various operations. The appliances used in silkworm rearing differ from place to place and also according to the system of rearing and mulberry harvest. The most common method of rearing in India is the shelf rearing as it facilitates the rearing of a large number of worms in a small space. Supply of rearing appliances is an important existing component in the Mulberry cocoon production chain supporting sericulturists to scientifically train plantation and undertake silkworm rearing.

During X & XI Plans, the component gained momentum among the bivoltine farmers encouraging production of bivoltine silk. The farmers were supported with modern rearing equipments such as farm machineries, shoot rearing racks, rotary mountages etc , which are essential for bivoltine sericulture. The unit cost approved for XI Plan was Rs.50,000/- per farmer.

However, during XII Plan, keeping in view the overall development of sericulture and targets of Bivoltine and ICB silk production, it is proposed to cover majority of the farmers for production of Bivoltine / and Improved Cross Breed. The unit costs ranging from Rs,40,000/- to Rs.70,000/- per farmer per acre for different seri zones are proposed for this component in XII Plan taking into consideration the cost of rotary mountages, other rearing equipments and farm implements. The scheme will also support labour saving farm appliances, rearing equipments and other devices to improve mechanization to promote family labour and reduce dependency on hired labour. It is proposed to cover 45,000 acres / farmers at a total cost of Rs.280.00 crores of which CSB share is Rs.149.66 cr.

Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The State Departments may identify the beneficiaries with the support of their field functionaries /Panchayat Raj Institutions
  • The DoS may constitute a State Level Purchase Committee with members drawn from State and CSB for procurement of equipment under this component by following transparent procedures. The purchase committee shall ensure procurement of equipment through the department or facilitate purchases made by approved bodies.
  • The rearing appliances and farm implements (as per approved list) shall be supplied to the farmers as per their actual requirement within the Unit Costs.
  • Since the unit cost of rearing appliances is high, farmers may be encouraged to get loan from banks / financial institutions to meet their share of cost
  • Flexibility is built-in to provide assistance for mechanization equipments like mini power tillers, matured silkworm seed separator, brush cutter/weed cutter, branch cutter etc. wherever felt necessary with out affecting the main objective of the component and within the approved unit cost. This is more appropriate in community rearing.
  • During XI Plan, due to higher unit cost there was low participation of poor, marginal and landless farmers. Keeping these farmers in view, flexibility is also built-in to provide assistance to cover small farmers also at lower unit cost.
  • Landless and small farmers may also be supported with a minimum rearing equipment support at a unit cost of Rs.5000/- per farmer as approved for XI Plan
  • The subsidy will be provided as per actual cost incurred on machineries, equipments, tools and appliances within the framework of overall approved Unit Cost.
  • For Southern States, supply of rotary mountages is essential for bivoltine sericulture. In respect of other states, plastic or other type of mountages can also be used in addition to rotary mountages within the approved unit cost.
  • Subsidy will be released on pro-rata basis subject to a maximum of Rs.70,000/- for rearing 250 dfls / batch in South India and 150 dfls / batch in Eastern and North-Eastern India keeping in view the unit costs approved for different zones.
  • Solar Lights are also included in the equipments list. Farmers from NE States and hilly states will get priority for solar lights within the prescribed unit cost for the region.
  • The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.
c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 70,000 45,000 Acres 149.66 65.17 65.17 280.00
NW 40,000
C & W 50,000
Eastern 50,000
NE 50,000

4. Supply of quality disinfecting materials and other crop protection measures for farmers.

a) Brief Description

Disinfection is an integral part of healthy and successful silkworm rearing. It aims at the total elimination of disease causing pathogens. Silkworms are infected by several diseases caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. The curative methods for any of the silkworm diseases are not economical and so the silkworm diseases are best prevented than cured. The silkworm diseases are prevented by adoption of proper and effective methods of disinfection and stepwise maintenance of hygiene during rearing. Availability of quality disinfecting materials in appropriate pack is one of the key factors for effective disinfection and thereby ensuring crop stability for successful harvest of cocoon crops.

During the XI Plan, the component was implemented for Bivoltine Seed farmers and the unit cost of the disinfectant pack was at Rs.3,000/- per farmer. The cost was to be shared by CSB, State and Beneficiary at 25:25:50. The component has helped to improve the hygienic conditions in the rearing sheds and also raised the awareness among the seed rearers to maintain such conditions for better quality and productivity. The component has been very effective and accepted well among the farmers especially in non-traditional states.

Continuation of this component in XII Plan will play a key role in increasing production and productivity of bivoltine silk. During XII Plan, assistance is proposed to be provided for both seed and commercial bivoltine cocoon farmers. While CSB will provide size and composition of the disinfectant module and a list of approved suppliers to the farmers, disinfectants to be supplied by the concerned agencies will be subject to quality test either by the State or CSB. It is proposed to cover 30,000 farmers in 5 years of XII Plan with two types of unit costs, ie. Rs.4,000/- and Rs.5,000/- for different zones for implementation of the programme. A provision of Rs.14.51 crores is proposed which includes a CSB share of Rs.7.57 cr. Against the sharing pattern of 25:25:50 in XI Plan, the general sharing pattern proposed during XII Plan is 50:25:25.

b) Technical specifications / Operational guidelines
  • CSB to finalize zone/state-wise list of approved disinfectant suppliers and size and disinfection material module
  • The disinfectants should be used as per the recommendations of the Research Institutes for the particular region.
  • The disinfectants can be supplied on subsidy basis for all varieties (BV / MV / CB) of silkworms.
  • Subsidy will be released on pro-rata basis subject to a maximum of Rs.5,000/- or Rs.4,000/- (as per zonal unit cost) per acre per year @ Rs 1,000/ or Rs.800/- per crop for 5 crops.
  • The disinfectants should be procured from list of approved suppliers/agencies and supplied to the farmers by the concerned agencies subject to quality test either by the State or CSB Research Institutes/Laboratories
  • In case of Navinya for the control of Root Rot in mulberry, the subsidy will be released on pro-rata basis subject to a maximum of Rs.3,000/- per acre.
  • The disinfectants supplied should be well within expiry date.

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 5,000 30,000 farmers 7.57 3.47 3.47 14.51
NW 4,000
C & W 4,000
Eastern 4,000
NE 4,000

5. Assistance for construction of rearing houses.

a) Brief Description

As mulberry silkworm is completely domesticated, silkworm rearing is an indoor activity. Silkworms should be reared under certain specific environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity for the production of good quality cocoon. Therefore, a separate silkworm rearing house is essential for silkworm rearing. The productivity and cocoon quality could be improved through a separate rearing house. Apart from the economic factors, many other qualitative factors such as crop stability, control of uzifly, ability to control silkworm diseases etc demand for construction of a separate rearing house. As construction of separate rearing house requires capital, which is not generally available with majority of farmers, assistance for construction of separate silkworm rearing house is essential.

Against a target to support construction of 1,11,081 rearing houses in XI Plan, the achievement was only 61,587 rearing houses (55%). One of the reasons for not achieving the target during XI Plan was escalation in cost of the construction materials, labour cost, low level of subsidy, especially in major sericulture States which fall under general category etc. Due to this, the farmers from major States were unable to meet their share of 50% cost. Therefore, keeping in view the suggestions made by States, the unit cost and subsidy are proposed to be slightly enhanced and rationalized during XII Plan to meet the escalation of construction cost and labour charges in different topographical regions of the country.

Considering different topographical regions and rearing capacity of farmers in major States, assistance for three models of rearing houses, viz., Rs.90,000, Rs.1,75,000 and Rs.2,75,000 are proposed for XII Plan by increasing the unit costs of Rs.75,000, Rs.1,50,000 and Rs. 2,00,000 approved in XI Plan. Further, for those States who desire to support the farmers for constructing low cost rearing houses with locally available materials, assistance will be given to construct rearing houses costing Rs.30,000/-. The same will be adjusted against the total numbers and provision proposed among the above three categories.

It is proposed to assist 45,000 rearing houses at a total cost of Rs.608.60 crore with a Central assistance of Rs.196.23 cr. during XII Plan. Against the general sharing pattern of 25:25:50 for the rearing houses in XI Plan, for the 4 new models of rearing houses, the subsidy pattern will be on a sliding scale, as indicated below:

Rearing House model Sharing pattern (CSB: State: Beneficiary)
Rs. 30,000 35 : 35 : 30
Rs. 90,000 35 : 35 : 30
Rs.1,75,000 30 : 30 : 40
Rs.2,75,000 25 : 25 : 50

This component would also have scope for assisting farmers possessing Mulberry plantation between 2 and 5 hectares for construction of a second rearing house, or for enlarging the existing rearing house sanctioned during X and XI Plan period, for production of Bivoltine and ICB cocoons only. However, the Central subsidy will be limited to only 25% irrespective of the model they are opting as a second rearing house in XII Plan, whether it is a general or special category state.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The rearing houses should be constructed as per the approved designs away from the dwelling houses to avoid contamination of diseases.
  • The floor and inside walls should be plastered. The rearing houses should be compact for maintaining the temperature and humidity and for conducting effective disinfection. Provision should be made to make it air tight for proper disinfection
  • Adequate ventilation facilities should be provided.
  • The rearing house should accommodate three or four tiers of rearing racks.
  • Since the type / design of rearing houses differ from region to region and also from plain to hilly areas within the state, the building should be constructed as per the prescribed design/models, but material usage may be as per discretion of implementing agencies.
  • Rearing house can preferably face east-west direction.
  • Considering the topographical nature of the regions and rearing capacity, assistance will be provided for three models of rearing houses, viz., 1,000 sq ft (250 dfls rearing capacity), 600 sq ft (150 dfls rearing capacity) and 225 sq ft (50 dfls rearing capacity) at Unit costs of Rs.2.75 lakhs, Rs.1.75 lakhs and Rs.0.90 lakh respectively.
  • For constructing low cost rearing houses with locally available materials, unit cost of Rs.30,000/- can be adopted.
  • Assistance would be extended for construction of a second rearing house or enlarging the existing rearing houses proportionate to the mulberry land holding. In such cases, central subsidy will be 25% only.
  • Even-though the rearing house constructed by a farmer is not exactly as per the recommended model, the subsidy can be considered for release if it meets the requirement of rearing of recommended quantity of dfls and justifying the cost involved, based on a joint inspection.
  • Micro-financial institutions or other financial institutions may be encouraged for providing loan in order to reduce the beneficiaries’ burden and ensuring better construction of rearing sheds.
  • The farmers should give an undertaking that they will undertake rearing for a minimum period of 5 years and the rearing house will be utilized for the purpose for which is intended.

The type of activities needed under the programme along-with its cost is indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category
(For four models of Rearing Houses)
35%
35%
30%
25%
35%
35%
30%
25%
30%
30%
40%
50%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
 
South
30,000 45,000 Nos. 196.23 162.73 249.64  
608.60
90,000
1,75,000
2,75,000
 
NW
30,000
75,000
125,000
C & W 30,000
75,000
 
Eastern
30,000
60,000
1,20,000
1,75,000
 
NE
30,000
60,000
1,20,000
1,75,000

6. Assistance for maintenance of Chawki Garden, construction of Chawki Rearing Centre buildings (CRCs) and procurement of Chawki Rearing Equipments.

a) Brief Description

Chawki means the first two stages of silkworm rearing. If the chawki worms are not reared properly, the silkworm will become susceptible to diseases in later stages resulting in crop losses. Chawki is the most crucial period of silkworm rearing that demands optimum temperature and humidity, hygienic conditions, good quality tender leaf, good rearing facilities and above all, technical skills. As most of the sericulturists do not have such facilities, the Chawki Rearing Centers (CRCs) are established to ensure crop stability and high cocoon yield.

During XI Plan, the component was implemented particularly for bivolitne sericulture development, with the unit cost of Rs.5.00 lakh / CRC and the subsidy was given to the extent of 50% shared equally by CSB and State (25:25) and the rest 50% from the beneficiary. During XI Plan, as against the target for covering 600 CRCs, 484 (81%) have been supported. Although there has been a good progress during XI Plan, as observed by NPC study team, the concept of chawkie rearing centers in the field is very low and many of the commercial cocoon farmers in traditional sericulture belt undertake chawkie rearing at their own rearing sheds which is not advisable. Hence it is felt that, the implementation of this component should be continued more vigorously and more number of CRCs need to be established especially in southern States to boost the production of Bivoltine and ICB silk.

Therefore, it is proposed to continue the programme during XII Plan to cover only bivoltine and ICB rearers, with an additional sub-component to provide assistance for maintenance of chawkie garden as in the case of XI Plan. The component is proposed to be extended to NGOs, SHGs, CBOs and individual farmers who are willing to establish CRCs on the land owned by them or under possession, on long term lease basis.

Due to cost escalation in construction and equipments, during XII Plan, the unit cost of CRCs is proposed to be enhanced up to Rs.6.00 lakhs towards construction of CRC building, procurement of equipments and maintenance of chawki gardens. It is proposed to support setting up of 380 CRCs during XII Plan. Total cost proposed for this component is Rs.20.20 crore, of which CSB share is Rs.8.20 cr. The unit cost also includes the cost for maintenance of chawki garden. The proposed sharing pattern is 35:35:30 by CSB, State and the Beneficiary, against the existing sharing pattern of 25:25:50 .

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The State Departments of Sericulture will consider applications from the Seri Business Enterprises / CBOs / SHGs or individuals willing to establish Chawki Rearing Centres on the land owned by them or under possession on long term lease basis and send proposals with the recommendations.
  • The State Department and Central Silk Board will jointly assist in procuring quality chawkie rearing equipments.
  • The State Departments are required to assist the entrepreneurs for getting the required loan from banks / financial institutions to meet their part of the share.
  • Only such Groups which have at-least 10 members may be considered for assistance since it would be uneconomical to create large facilities for a smaller group.
  • The beneficiary, who avails this component, should be trained on Chawki Rearing Technology at any one of the Training Centres of CSB or State.
  • Formal induction training may be conducted for them and refresher trainings also need to be organized to keep them updated with technology and scientific management practices.
  • Two acres of chawki garden is essential for a CRC to rear 1.50 to 1.60 lakh dfls of chawki worms @ 5000 dfls / batch once in every 10 days interval with 32 batches per annum.
  • If the States desire to set up CRC in their Farms, they will have to bear the beneficiary share also in addition to State’s matching share.
  • Micro Level CRCs in small Clusters (covering 10 to 20 farmers) will also be assisted for procurement of CRC equipments (like plastic rearing trays & stands, Hygrometer, Humidifier, Leaf Chopping Machine and Compressor Power Sprayer etc.) with a unit cost of Rs.50,000 to Rs.1,00,000 or as per actual local needs.
  • The CRC should be registered with Central Silk Board as per the Seed Act.
  • The CRC should be set up away from late age silkworm rearing building
  • A system to be followed to certify the chawki worms by the suitable authorities before distribution to the farmers.
  • Since the type / design of Chawkie rearing houses differ from region to region and also from plain to hilly areas within the state, CRC building should be constructed as per the prescribed design.
  • State Level Purchase Committee constituted by DoS will assist the units in procurement of equipments.
  • The State departments may plan/finalize the targets for CRCs in such a way that adequate number of chawkie rearing centres are established in all commercial cocoon clusters.
  • The CRC should adopt the improved mulberry varieties suited for chawki as also technology packages recommended by the research institutes.

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 35% 35% 30%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical Target Financial Projections (Rs. in crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 6,00,000  
380 Nos.
8.20 6.44 5.56 20.20
NW 4,00,000
C & W 4,00,000
Eastern 4,00,000
NE 4,00,000

7. Production units for biological inputs, Door-to-door service agents for disinfection, input supply, and assistance for sericulture poly-clinics:

a) Brief Description

This component consists of three parts namely a) Setting up of production units for biological inputs; b) Door-to-door service agents for disinfection and inputs supply and assistance for Sericulture Poly-Clinics. This was introduced newly during XI Plan and implemented as separate components. During XII Plan, it is proposed to combine these components and implement as an integrated unit, each one servicing a large area / cluster and can be linked to Chawkie Rearing Centre also.

i) Setting up of production units for biological inputs

During XI Plan, the acceptability of this component was very low due to lack of technical know how. Therefore, during XII Plan, it is planned that the R&D institutes of CSB to provide training to the beneficiaries who have been selected to set up the Biological units.

The R&D Institutions have made a number of innovations where microbes have been isolated and cultured which can be used either to enrich the soil fertility (bio-fertilizers) or control the diseases (antagonistic microbes) or Bio-pesticides / Bio-control agents and other plants / animal products used in sericulture. It is proposed to commercialize these innovations through qualified entrepreneurs, if required through collaborative efforts.

The Research Institutes which have isolated or developed various inputs such as microbes, shall help the States to scrutinize applications received from the qualified graduates / post graduates who have got the basic facilities like land, building etc. After approval of the projects, the funds will be released to the entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurs shall pay the royalty to the technology developer which will be decided by a committee to be constituted during the course of the implementation of the scheme.

ii) Door-to-door service agents for disinfection and inputs supply

During XI Plan, this component was quite useful and acceptable especially in traditional sericulture belts. During XII Plan, it is proposed to encourage Private Service Agents to carry out the disinfection and supply of inputs to the farmers at their door steps. Interested unemployed youths / entrepreneurs / persons shall be identified through local Panchayats / NGOs / SHGs/CBOs and other local bodies and will be provided with a motor cycle / three wheelers to carry the disinfecting equipments like power sprayer, accessories and safety equipments etc. These door to door service agents will provide disinfection service at the door steps of the farmers and charge for the same. They will also supply the disinfectants and other inputs / utilities to the farmers at their door steps in the geographical area covered / serviced by a CRC.

iii)Setting up of Sericulture Poly-clinics

It is proposed to set up Sericulture Poly Clinics on the lines of agriculture, where the educated youth run the Poly Clinics which serve as knowledge centers and provide necessary consultancy and inputs to the sericulturists. The qualified graduates / diploma holders in sericulture having knowledge of sericulture and testing procedures shall be selected under the scheme through a transparent procedure. They will be trained in the research laboratories in testing the soil, leaves or silkworms and in identifying the deficiencies and diseases and will be groomed as entrepreneurs for testing soils, leaf samples, silkworms etc. The units shall serve as laboratories for problem identification, trouble shooting and consultancy centres. They will charge for testing, consultancy and other services. These units will also function as Sales Centers for disinfectants, chemicals, appliances and other devices used in sericulture.

The total funds proposed for implementation of the above three sub-components during XII Plan is Rs.6.43 crore to support 250 units of which Rs.3.37 cr. is CSB share. The unit costs proposed for the 3 sub-components is 3.00 lakhs for southern zone and Rs.1.50 lakh to Rs.1.84 lakhs for other zones. The sharing of the cost is between CSB, State and Beneficiary at 50:25:25 / 80:10:10.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The State DOSs will identify the eligible entrepreneurs / unemployed graduates having knowledge of sericulture and testing procedures through a transparent system,
  • The identified entrepreneurs / unemployed graduates are to be trained on the concerned activity in a Research Institute / Training Centre of the Central Silk Board before taking up the activity.
  • The Entrepreneurs / unemployed graduates who receive assistance will be issued a Certificate either from DOS / CSB as the authorized person to sell / distribute the biological control agents and other inputs.
  • The DOS should support the Biological Agent Multiplication Units for at least two years for marketing of the products to the farmers.
  • The DOS / CSB will adopt a quality control system so as to ensure the quality of biological agents produced and distributed in the field.
  • This programme can be linked to an existing or new CRC and the coverage of beneficiaries could be in the same jurisdictional cluster area for effective output and outcome of bivoltine and ICB cocoons.
  • It is not compulsory to implement all the 3 sub-components by an entrepreneur. In such cases, unit cost will be restricted to the cost of that particular sub-component(s).
  • The Door to Door Service Agents will provide disinfection service at the door steps of the farmers and charge for the same. They will also supply the disinfectants and other inputs / utilities to the farmers at their door steps.
  • In respect of group activity, the benefits of all the three sub-components can be availed unlike individual beneficiary, for maximum coverage.
  • The components can be availed for implementation in the cluster project areas by the agencies involved in project implementation and monitoring, including Central Silk Board.

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections :

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below:

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Target Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 3,00,000 250 Nos. 3.37 1.53 1.53 6.43
NW 1,50,000
C & W 1,50,000
Eastern 1,84,000
NE 1,50,000

8. Support for development of Kisan Nurseries :

a) Brief Description

Mulberry being a perennial plant, its initial establishment is important to ensure optimum growth for continuous yield of quality nutrient leaves over the years. Direct plantation through cutting does not ensure good establishment and gap filling of failed pits in established garden is not successful practically, especially in close system of intensive cultivation. Saplings ensure successful establishment of garden. Planting saplings has got many advantages like high survival rate due to existing root system, scope for removal of weak / undesirable nursery plants at nursery stage, quick and better establishment of garden, uniform development of the garden and timely plantation. The saplings also could be used for replacement of old mulberry plantations, gap filling etc. It is therefore a viable proposition to raise saplings in large scale, commercially and make them available to farmers. Most of the farmers prefer saplings for plantation instead of propagation through cuttings.

To facilitate large scale production of saplings on commercial scale as an economic enterprise, it is proposed to introduce this new component during XII Plan. Improved varieties of Mulberry saplings are recommended for sustainable growth of the Mulberry garden. As the State sericulture departments are not having sufficient infrastructure and manpower to raise the required quantity of Mulberry saplings at Government level to cover the target of more than about 1,00,000 acres of additional plantation in XII Plan, it is proposed to encourage private Kisan Nurseries on a PPP model.

A farmer / entrepreneur can raise about 1,30,000 high yielding and improved variety mulberry saplings in one acre per year which can support direct plantation development in 25 acres. With a one time support for this venture, it will be possible for the Kisan Nursery to sustain and continue the activity. However, the State Sericulture Departments and other implementing agencies have to support the Kisan nurseries by procuring the saplings for distribution to the identified project / cluster area beneficiaries by giving at least 4 months advance indents . It is proposed to develop Kisan Nurseries in 300 acres during XII Plan with a total cost of Rs.3.45 crore which includes Rs.1.84 cr. as CSB share. A unit cost of Rs.1.15 lakh per Kisan Nursery is proposed. 300 acres of Kisan nursery can support direct plantation in about 7,500 acres @ 5000 saplings / acre per year. State may replicate this model by availing funds from other sources, to achieve the plantation targets of XII Plan.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • Though Mulberry saplings can be raised throughout the year, it is advisable to raise saplings three to four months prior to the planting season, i.e. February to April, so that the saplings will be ready by June to August to take up plantation taking advantage of monsoon rains.
  • Saplings can be raised directly in nursery bed or in polythene bags of 23 to 25 cm height and 10 to 15 cm diameter, filled with mixture of soil, organic manure and sand. The polythene bags should be provided with holes at the bottom to drain excess water, after watering. Saplings in polythene bags are easy to maintain and transport.
  • The nursery land should be flat and elevated, low lying with adequate irrigation facilities. Submersible areas must be avoided.
  • Recommended mulberry varieties shall be used for raising the saplings. CSB and State should arrange supply of cuttings of recommended improved mulberry varieties required for the nurseries.
  • The subsidy amount will be given according to number of acres of Kisan Nurseries on pro-rata basis subject to a maximum of 10 acres per entrepreneur.
  • Even though there is ceiling limit per Kisan Nursery, State can support more area depending on the capacity of the identified entrepreneur and potential in the area for sericulture development.
  • The State Sericulture Departments and other implementing agencies can support the nurseries raised by the farmers.

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 115,000 300 acres 1.84 0.81 0.80 3.45
NW 115,000
C & W 115,000
Eastern 115,000
NE 115,000

9. Maintenance cost for Mulberry plantation raised during X & XI Plan.

a) Brief Description

Maintenance of Mulberry plantation is essential for healthy silkworm rearing. It involves various operations like annual bottom pruning, weeding and inter-cultivation, application of organic manure, chemical fertilizers etc. which can be managed by large /rich farmers, and other farmers who practice sericulture in traditional areas. Since the farmers who practice mulberry sericulture in NE States and other hilly areas mostly belong to the economically weaker section, they are unable to follow the schedules of systematic cultivation practices for the maintenance of rainfed mulberry garden due to lack of man power and financial resources. This is one of the main reasons for decline in production and productivity in mulberry unlike Tasar, Eri and Muga, for want of support to maintain these plantations. If such farmers are supported for maintenance of plantation developed during previous plan periods, there will be improvement in production and productivity of bivoltine and ICB cocoons.

During X and XI Plan period, support was extended to about 2,22,500 acres of Mulberry Plantation under CDP, which includes 13,650 acres in NE Region.

Therefore, in order to improve the production and productivity, this component is proposed to support such poor farmers for maintenance of the Mulberry plantation developed during the earlier plan periods, which not only help them to reduce the mortality rate, but also improve the production and productivity of bivoltine and ICB cocoons. During XII Plan, it is proposed to support maintenance of 5,000 acres of such plantations and a provision of Rs.2.25 crores including a Central share of Rs 1.79 cr. is proposed for NE as well as other hilly regions of the country, with a unit cost of Rs.4,500/- per acre.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The State departments to select Mulberry plantation raised during previous Plans aimed at production of Bivoltine and ICB cocoons only.
  • To adopt the prescribed schedule of systematic cultivation practices for maintenance of rainfed Mulberry plantation (annual bottom pruning, weeding and inter-cultivation, application of bulk organic manure, chemical fertilizer etc.) for better production and productivity
  • In order to improve the production & productivity, assistance will be given for maintenance of old Mulberry gardens in respect of NE & other hilly regions
  • Only surviving plants developed in earlier Plan are eligible for maintenance cost, depending on a minimum number of 2,500 plants per acre.
  • In case of Tree Plantation, assistance of Rs.110/- per tree would be provided to a minimum of 100 plants on pro rata basis.

The activities required under the programme along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary

General category

50% 25% 25%

Special category

80% 10% 10%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Target Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary

Total

South

Not applicable 5,000 acres 1.79 0.23 0.23 2.25

NW

4,500

C & W

Not applicable

Eastern

Not applicable

NE

4,500

10. Support for construction of Vermi-compost sheds.

a) Brief Description

This is an environment friendly activity, helping in waste re-cycling and increasing fertility of the soil. Now-a-days the farmers are facing several problems for adequate supply of nutrients for mulberry plants and maintain the soil health in the mulberry gardens. Earthworms effectively convert organic wastes into vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, protein rich products and others organic compounds. Vermicompost, besides improving nutrient content of land thereby saving fertilizer costs, promotes faster growth of plants, increases water-holding capacity of soil, reduces salinity and acidity, induces resistance to pest and disease attack, enhances soil productivity and increases crop yield with less irrigation resulting in better crop .

This component was approved by Govt. of India as an additional input to CDP during the X Plan with a unit cost of Rs.14,000/-, but was not continued in XI Plan. There has been good progress under this component in X Plan and States have also repeatedly requested for its re-introduction. Therefore, during XII Plan, it is proposed to implement this component with a unit cost of Rs.20,000/- to cover 3,350 units at a total cost of Rs.6.70 crores involving a Central share of Rs.3.64 cr. One Vermi-composting shed normally consists of 4 tanks and the initial investment of Rs.20,000 includes construction of tanks, thatched shed and about 7 kg of earth worms. Selling cost of each MT of Vermi-compost is approximately Rs.2,500/- to Rs.3,500/-.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The Vermi-compost sheds shall be constructed as per the specifications to ensure treatment of 9-12 quintals of waste in a cycle of 40-45 days.
  • The supply of feed culture of earthworms should be ensured as recommended by the Research Institutes.
  • The subsidy should be given only once to a farmer. The farmers who have availed subsidy earlier under CDP or any other programme for construction of vermi-composting shed are not eligible to avail the subsidy.
  • Only bivoltine and ICB rearing farmers are eligible for support of this component.
  • Assistance may be dovetailed with similar programmes taken up by other Ministries / Departments.
  • This component can also be encouraged as a stand-alone venture for supply of vermi-compost to neighboring sericulture farmers.
  • The State / beneficiary shall give certificate to the effect that they have not availed for Vermi-compost shed from any other department

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%

Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 20,000 3,350 Nos. 3.64 1.53 1.53 6.70
NW 20,000
C & W 20,000
Eastern 20,000
NE 20,000

11. Assistance towards fencing of mulberry gardens in NE States.

a) Brief Description

There has been a long pending demand from NE States for providing support to fence mulberry plantations as there is an inherent problem of grazing by cattle and other animals resulting in destruction of mulberry plantation. Mostly, the mulberry plantations in NE States are far away from the dwelling houses and regular watch and ward is not practical for the farmers. If support is provided for low cost fencing of the mulberry plantation, it can sustain the plantation for higher leaf yield and increase in cocoon production. Therefore, it is proposed to support 5,000 acres of mulberry plantation for fencing in XII Plan, including the surviving plantations of earlier Plan periods, with a unit cost of Rs.10,000 per acre. The total cost is proposed as Rs.5.00 crores with a CSB share of Rs.4.00 cr. This is applicable to NE States only.

c) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The farmers can go for either hedge fencing with vegetative crops or bamboo fencing.
  • The subsidy will be provided to the farmers of NE States only to protect the plantations meant for production of bivoltine and ICB cocoons.
  • State / Beneficiary has to give a certificate to the effect that support from other Department was not taken for this component.

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary

Special category

80% 10% 10%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Targets Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary

Total

South

Not applicable 5,000 acres 4.00 0.50 0.50 5.00

NW

Not applicable

C & W

Not applicable

Eastern

Not applicable

NE

10,000

12. Assistance towards expansion of Rearing Houses for construction of Mounting Halls in NE and Hilly States.

a) Brief Description

Mounting of silkworms is an essential activity of cocoon production The improper use of mounting material and lack of care during mounting of mature worms result in formation of defective cocoons, which affects the reeling performance. Even though the silkworm larvae are healthy, it is estimated that the farmers loose about 5 to 8 % of worms at the spinning stage due to improper mounting management.

Therefore there is a need to support this activity for increase in the production & productivity of cocoons, which is presently much below the national average in NE and Hilly region. Sericulture farmers from North East and Hilly areas have their plantations far away from their dwelling houses. The rearing houses have been constructed nearer to the plantation, which do not have any facility for indoor mounting. Therefore, considering the need for increasing production and productivity of bivoltine and ICB cocoons, and also as requested by State Departments in NE and Hilly States, it is proposed to support for construction of mounting hall for the existing rearing houses constructed in X and XI Plans as well as for new rearing houses to be constructed in XII Plan for silkworm mounting.

During X and XI Plan, about 15,000 rearing houses were supported in NE and Hilly States. It is proposed to support 5,000 mounting halls including the new rearing houses to be constructed during XII Plan in NE and Hilly States. The unit cost proposed for construction of one mounting hall is Rs.30,000/-. An amount of Rs.15.00 crores is proposed for this purpose which includes a Central share of Rs.12.00 cr.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • Separate mounting hall with good ventilation is ideal for mounting of silkworms.
  • The State DOSs to identify the eligible farmers who have stable plantation, functional rearing house and conduct regular rearing for getting assistance for construction of mounting halls @ unit cost of Rs.30,000/- per mounting hall.
  • Even if a farmer has got more than one rearing house, supported by required area of plantation, he may be considered for assistance and the subsidy provided on prorata basis.
  • Preference will be for more farmers in hilly regions, whose rearing houses are far away from dwelling houses, but for production of bivoltine and ICB cocoons.
  • Structure / Plan / Drawing of Mounting hall with the capacity of mounting, Type of mounting hall along-with details of floor, wall and roof will be provided by State, as per local needs

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary

Special category

80% 10% 10%

Zone

Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Target Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary

Total

South

Not applicable 5,000 Nos 12.00 1.50 1.50 15.00

NW

30,000

C & W

Not applicable

Eastern

Not applicable

NE

30,000

13. Support for increasing the yield of existing rainfed mulberry garden through water conservation techniques:

a) Brief Description

About 45% of the sericulturists in India cultivate Mulberry in rainfed conditions. True moisture stress is experienced in rainfed areas only when annual rainfall is less than 1,000 mm with limited number of rainy days. Nearly one third of the Mulberry area in south and Central States belong to this category. Generally the yield and quality of leaf are poor under such condition. Specific package of practices for Mulberry cultivation to improve both yield and quality of leaf under such stress conditions is required to be adopted. Package of practices mainly involve use of adoptive high yielding Mulberry varieties which are adopted to stress conditions, measures for better establishment during initial stages of plantation and suitable agronomical practices emphasizing soil moisture conservation and timely plant protection measures.

Therefore, with the increasing scarcity of water in many areas of the country, it is necessary to introduce innovative technologies to enhance water conservation ability of the soil. Since Mulberry is a perennial crop, such efforts will have greater impact in improving the leaf yield. The field studies undertaken by CSB and University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore have proved that the income from sericulture can be substantially improved by resorting to the water conservation methods in rain-fed gardens.

Considering the need for improving the productivity of rainfed gardens, the farmers would be supported to develop their existing rainfed gardens by the recommended water conservation techniques. Under the programme, in between rows of mulberry, biomass filled trenches will be made along with planting vegetative trees as live hedge in trench cum bunds. The trenches will be filled with green biomass along with green farmyard manure. This vegetative bund cum trenches serve as water conservation structures and decomposing biomass will provide necessary nutrients to the Mulberry plantations in addition to absorbing maximum moisture, maintain humidity, increases soil fertility due to higher content of organic matter and also curtails soil erosion. Every trench acts as mini water harvesting tank and moisture retention pocket. A water conserver would also be built in the garden. Under the component during XII Plan, 4,000 acres will be supported @ Rs.10,000 per acre. The total cost estimated is Rs.4.00 crore, out of which Rs.2.12 cr. will be borne by CSB.

b) Technical specifications / Operational Guidelines
  • The component shall be supported to farmers of rainfed / drought area only who undertake bivoltine and ICB rearing.
  • Identification of slopes, construction of bunds, and formation of sub plots of convenient size.
  • Biomass is filled in the trenches, in alternative layers of green biomass and compost/FYM uniformly in 3/4 depth of the trench. Remaining portion of trench to be filled with soil and closed.
  • Leguminous crops to be grown between rows, to generate in-situ green manure, which should be later ploughed back after harvesting.
  • A water conserver of 1,000 cu ft capacity is to be set up at suitable location.
  • Farmers with existing rainfed gardens of minimum two years old and up-to 1 ha are eligible for support from this component. The farmers may be identified by the field units of DoS, who must hold valid passbook of DoS or any other documents proving their identity as a sericulture farmer.
  • The Field Officer concerned shall certify the works undertaken based on her/his visit before and after implementing the programme. It must also to be certified that the beneficiary has not availed assistance for the same work from other programmes of government or agencies. An undertaking may be obtained from the farmers to the effect that sericulture activity will be continued for a period of 3 years after availing subsidy under the programme.
  • As far as possible, the recommended mulberry varieties suitable for the Zones and rainfed conditions may be selected, in case for new plantation. For the new plantations, the assistance under this programme can be provided in addition to the establishment cost of the garden under “Support for mulberry plantation development”
  • The leaf productivity of the supported beneficiaries must be recorded for a minimum period of 3 years

The activities required under the component along with its cost details are indicated in the Unit cost (refer Unit Cost Book) of the component.

c) Physical targets and Financial Projections:

The details of Sharing pattern, Unit Cost, Physical targets and financial projections are given in the table below :

Sharing pattern Category CSB State Beneficiary
General category 50% 25% 25%
Special category 80% 10% 10%
Zone Unit Cost (Rupees) Physical  Target Financial Projections (Rs. in  crores)
CSB State Beneficiary Total
South 10,000 4,000 acres 2.12 0.94 0.94 4.00
NW 10,000
C & W 10,000
Eastern 10,000
NE 10,000
Expected outcome

The implementation of the programme will supplement the efforts of States resulting in production of 23,000 MT of Mulberry raw silk (which includes 5,000 MT of 3A grade bivoltine silk and 6,060 MT 2A to 3A grade Improved Cross Breed silk) by end of XII Plan i.e., 2016-17. Implementation of the components under cocoon sector would help to improve the quality and productivity because of the adoption of improved technologies. Besides, it will ensure production of quality cocoons which brings a quantum jump in the production of high quality production of bivoltine silk from the present level of around 1,685 MT to 5,000 MT by the end of XII Plan. Substantial volume of Cross Breed Cocoon production of the previous Plan period will be upgraded to Improved Cross Breed production as per the strategy of XII Plan. This would bring down the existing demand-supply gap. Because of CDP interventions and profitability of sericulture sector, there will be incremental increase of Raw silk to about 4,728 MTs over XI Plan production and support generation of additional employment of 16.80 lakh persons by the end of XII Plan. The income generated by implementation of the Mulberry cocoon sector components would help to improve the economic and social conditions of the farmers. However reduction in allocation may adversely affect in achieving the set targets.

Even though the envisaged Mulberry silk production target for XII Plan is 23,000 MT, the support proposed to be provided under mulberry sector components of CDP will be mainly towards achieving the target of 5,000 MT of Bivoltine silk and 6,060 MT of higher grade improved cross breed silk production (2A/3A grade) suitable for weaving in the power looms aimed at reducing import dependence for high quality yarn. The remaining production of 12,000 MTs of cross breed/ multivoltine) silk shall be achieved by marginally augmenting the support already provided under CDP till XI Plan by building up proper linkages for their sustenance and maximizing benefits from the existing capacity through productivity improvement measures. However, seed support for the Mulberry sector will continue for all varieties in order to achieve overall production target as male parent of bivoltine silkworm is required for cross breed silk production.

BRIEF WRITE UP ON POST-COCOON SCHEMES OF XII PLAN CDP

1. Support for Construction of Reeling Sheds:

The purpose implementation of the component is to provide support for construction of reeling sheds for reeling units being established in a separate building in identified Reeling Park / industrial areas or for a unit separate from the dwelling. It is proposed to extend subsidy for construction of reeling sheds for establishment of Cottage Basin and Multi-end Reeling units. Support for construction of reeling sheds in respect of Vanya reeling shall also be considered if the reeling units are being set up as a unit separate from dwelling. Central share allocation of Rs. 6.34 crores has been made to cover construction of 275 reeling sheds.

2. Support for establishment of Motorized Charkas to dissuade child labour:

Turning /rotating charkha in a Charkha reeling unit is a manual activity and there is scope for engaging child labour for this. In order to discourage employment of child labour and  improve the working conditions in Charka units, this component envisages support for establishment of motor driven twin Charkha units with required driving arrangements. Central share allocation of Rs. 0.73 crores has been made for establishment of 1000 units.

3. Support for establishment of Improved Cottage Basin Reeling Units:                           

Cottage basin system of reeling is an improved technology over Charka and provides better quality silk compared to Charka. CSB has developed an improved cottage basin reeling technology package for producing better quality silk and improving working conditions. The component envisages support for setting up of Improved Cottage Basin Reeling units in non-traditional States and non-traditional areas of traditional States. Central share allocation of Rs. 1.13 crores has been made for establishment of 50 improved cottage basin reeling units

4. Support for establishment of Multi-end Reeling Units:

CSB has developed a Multi-end reeling machinery package for production of international grade raw silk using quality multi x bivoltine and bivoltine cocoons produced in the country. The component envisages support for setting up of 6-Basin and 10-Basin units. The units can be established by individual entrepreneurs or by a group in SPV mode. It is also proposed to provide support for reconditioning of multi-end reeling machinery supplied during earlier plan periods. Central share allocation of Rs. 16.79 crores has been made for establishment of 225 multi-end reeling units.

5. Support for establishment of Automatic Reeling units:

With a view to produce international quality raw silk from Bivoltine cocoons produced in the country, support is being provided for establishment of automatic reeling units. The component envisages support towards establishment of 400 ends / 200 ends capacity automatic reeling unit with latest technology for cocoon drying, cooking, reeling, re-reeling etc. The units can be established by individual entrepreneurs or by a group in SPV mode. Central share allocation of Rs. 12.39 crores has been made for establishment of 20 automatic reeling units

6. Support for establishment of Automatic Dupion Reeling units:

The double cocoons and inferior quality cocoons are converted in to dupion silk yarn on a dupion reeling machine. With a view to provide better value addition to inferior quality cocoons and produce international quality dupion yarn, support is given for establishment of Automatic Dupion Silk Reeling units with imported machinery. The units can be established by individual entrepreneurs or by a group in SPV mode. Central share allocation of Rs. 1.28 crores has been made for establishment of 3 automatic dupion reeling units.

7. Assistance for Twisting Units:

The objective of this component is to enhance profit margin of the multi-end reeling unit by adding a twisting unit so that the unit can go for value addition by way of selling their produce in the form of twisted silk. This component provides support for establishment of twisting units of 480 spindles along with winding and doubling machines.  Central share allocation of Rs. 7.45 crores has been made for establishment of 125 twisting units

8. Interest Subsidy on Working Capital loan sanctioned by Banks to Reeling Units:                            

Reeling is the weakest link in the entire production process of silk. The cost of the raw material i.e. cocoons constitutes around 80 – 90% of cost of reeled silk, making the working capital requirement the most critical component in reeling activity. Added to this, there is relatively poor flow of credit to the silk reeling sector from banks / financial institutions. In order to meet the working capital requirement of the reelers and encourage credit flow to the reeling sector, it is proposed to provide a maximum of 5% interest subsidy on the working capital loan sanctioned to reeling units by the Scheduled Commercial Banks to be shared between Central & State. Central share allocation of Rs. 1.84 crores has been made for the purpose.

9. Incentive for production of Bivoltine silk:

This component encourages production of quality BV raw silk by providing a quality based incentive to multi end and automatic reeling units. This would also provide a thrust to bivoltine sericulture in the country through better value realization for bivoltine cocoons and encourage farmers to produce quality bivoltine cocoons. The eligible incentive shall be paid by the concerned State and CSB on a sharing basis. Central share allocation of Rs. 7.80 crores has been made to meet the requirement.

10. Support for Vanya Reeling / Spinning Sector:

(a). Reeling-cum-Twisting Machine:

CSB has designed and developed a reeling-cum-twisting machine, which is suitable for both tasar and muga reeling. The mechanization of reeling and twisting in one single operation has some definite advantages viz., higher productivity, reduced labour, removal of drudgery and importantly producing better quality twisted yarn. The component supports the establishment of these units in the Vanya sector and Central share allocation of Rs. 9.71 crores has been made for establishment of 3000 reeling cum twisting machines.

(b). Wet Reeling Machines (2-Basins of 6-ends each):

Tasar reeling is predominantly a dry reeling activity. CSB has developed a wet reeling machinery and technology package for production of better quality tasar yarn.  It is proposed to promote this tasar reeling package as a new component under the XII Plan and Central share allocation of Rs. 0.36 crores has been made for establishment of 100 wet reeling machines.

(c). Two-in-One Reeling-cum-Twisting Machine:

This component provides support for a machine which has facilities for both wet reeling and twisting on a single machine as independent activities. This component is proposed to be implemented during the XII Plan period as a new component and Central share allocation of Rs. 0.50 crores has been made for establishment of 100 machines.

 (d). Tasar Cocoon Sorting Machine:

The manual sorting of tasar cocoon, which is being practiced in the field since long, is a cumbersome process. To overcome this, CSB has developed a mechanical device to separate tasar cocoons based on the size. As this device is cost effective, it is proposed to promote this device in tasar producing States on a pilot basis during the XII Plan and Central share allocation of Rs. 0.03 crores has been made for establishment of 10 cocoon sorting machines.

(e). Motorized / Pedal Operated Spinning Machine:

To improve the productivity and quality of hand spun silk yarn, CSB has developed motorized/pedal operated spinning machine. This component has made a considerable impact in the field under earlier plan periods. It is proposed to continue the said component under XII Plan period also with a central share allocation of Rs 2.13 crores for establishment of 4500 machines.

(f). Solar operated Spinning Machines:

CSB has developed a spinning machine driven by solar energy to address the requirement of artisans of remote villages where availability of electricity is scarce. Central share allocation of Rs 0.14 crore has been made for establishment of 100 solar operated spinning machines

11. Providing services of Master Reelers and Technicians:

One of the major constraints for sustaining silk reeling industry in non-traditional States and non-traditional areas of traditional States is the absence of skilled reelers. To overcome this problem, the concept of deputing Master Reelers to existing silk reeling units to train the workers engaged in the units was introduced. Considering the good feedback / demand and request from the States, it is proposed to continue the component during XII Plan also with a modification to provide services of Master Technicians also to attend the repair and other maintenance work of reeling units. Central share allocation of Rs. 0.86 crores has been made for deputing 50 Master Reelers & 10 master Technicians.

12. Support for Handloom Sector:

 (a). Loom up-gradation through Jacquards & other equipments developed by CSTRI:

The existing silk handloom units are not having the financial capacity to upgrade their handlooms for producing diversified products and for adopting small interventions required for better operation. In this direction, support would be provided for upgrading existing pit or frame or improved handlooms working on silk through installation of attachments like additional jacquards, dobby and by the way of providing pirn winding machine, Asu machine, winding machine etc. Central share allocation of Rs. 3.86 crores has been made for upgrading 5000 silk handlooms.

 (b). Pneumatic Lifting Mechanism developed by CSTRI for Silk Handloom:

Use of three to four jacquards for weaving intricate designs is a common practice in silk handloom weaving. The manual effort required to lift these jacquards puts lot of strain on the weaver and it is taking a heavy toll with severe joint ailments leading to arthritis. This is probably one of the main reasons for the younger generation to move away from traditional handloom weaving. The use of pneumatic lifting mechanism on handloom is a step in the right direction to reduce the drudgery/strain on the weaver and this component provides support for installing pneumatic lifting mechanism on handlooms. Central share allocation of Rs. 4.53 crores has been made for attaching pneumatic lifting mechanism on 2000 silk handlooms.

13.  Support for setting up of Common Facility Centres (CFC) for Yarn Dyeing &   Fabric Processing (special technology package developed by CSTRI):

(i) Computer Aided Textile Designing (CATD):

Design forms an integral & crucial part of textiles and offers an edge to the product in the market. Much of the effort involved in the process of design development can be minimized with the use of computers with software for textile designing. Computer Aided Textile Designing (CATD) provides freedom to the textile designer to get the best out of his artistic ingenuity and better flexibility for his creativity. It also equips the textile designer with a tool to react to the changes in the market trend in a faster way. The components like computerized card punching machine eliminates the requirement of manual labour to a large extent. Central share allocation of Rs.1.23 crores has been made for establishment of 50 CATD units.

(ii). Yarn Dyeing (Tub Dyeing & Arm Dyeing):

The level of technology and work practices adopted in silk yarn dyeing is primitive. The effluents are usually discharged without treatment raising environmental concerns. CSB studied the requirements of these dyeing clusters across the country and came out with certain measures to address the problems. Based on this study, support is extended for establishment of silk yarn dyeing units of varying capacity. Central share allocation of Rs 2.85 crores has been made for establishment of 35 tub dyeing and 10 arm dyeing units.

 (iii). Fabric Processing:

Most of the silk fabrics produced on powerlooms like soft silk, chiffon, crepe, georgette are piece dyed and hence require fabric processing and finishing facility. As these facilities are capital intensive, the fabric processing is carried out in vessels in primitive manner resulting in poor quality. The finishing work is generally outsourced. The support available under the above component helps to create better fabric processing facility. Central share of Rs 2.10 crores has been earmarked for establishment of 10 such units.

(iv). Support for Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP):

The silk yarn dyeing and fabric processing facilities created under CDP during earlier Plan periods were not with ETP. The Pollution Control Board in the recent past has issued strict guidelines and treatment of effluent before discharge is made compulsory. The component equips these Yarn Dyeing and Fabric Processing units with ETP and helps to address environmental concerns. Central share of Rs 2.84 crores has been earmarked for this purpose.

14. Providing services of Master Weavers/ Designers, Dyers and Technicians:                               

Each handloom cluster is known for its unique product and there is very little effort to incorporate design changes to suit the changing market demands. The main reason could be the non-availability of skilled manpower to handle this task. Similarly, silk yarn dyeing is an integral part of silk weaving cluster and standard dyeing practices are need of the hour. The concept of Master Weavers/ Dyers helps to upgrade the skill available in silk weaving/ dyeing clusters. Central share allocation of Rs 0.86 crores has been made for providing services of Master Weaver/Designer/Dyer/Technician.

15. Support to States for Creating / Upgrading Marketing Infrastructure for Cocoons and Raw Silk:                                

The component envisages support for creation of marketing infrastructure in the States for transacting cocoons and raw silk based on quality based pricing.  The support can be utilized for Establishment of new Cocoon Markets/ Silk Exchanges, Upgradation of existing Cocoon Markets/ Silk Exchanges, Establishment of Cocoon Banks/ Warehouses, Organization of Vanya (Muga & Eri) Cocoon Marketing outlets and Development of Information Technology (IT) Solutions. An allocation of central share of Rs 11.94 crores has been made for the said purpose.

16. Support for setting up of Hot Air Driers:

In Northern and North-Eastern States, sericulture is practiced as a seasonal activity. During the favorable seasons, cocoons are harvested and these harvested cocoons are to be dried & stored for long for its use over a period of six months. In most of the non-traditional States proper cocoon drying facility is not available. This component encourages State/farmer/reelers to establish electrical/multi-fuel hot air drying units of different capacity. It is also proposed to support setting up of Conveyor type Hot Air Dryer of 2 MT capacity as a Common Facility as there is a demand to this type of hot air dryers especially in the biannual cropping States like HP, Uttarakhand, J&K etc. Central share provision of Rs 7.76 crores has been made for establishing these hot air driers.

17. Vanya Silk Marketing Promotion (VSMP):                                                                        

In recent years, ‘Vanya Silks’ have recorded dramatic improvements in quality and productivity levels. The new initiatives taken by CSB like popularization of new machines for reeling, spinning etc. facilitated the emergence of wide range of marketable products in these sectors. A host of initiatives have been taken by CSB to promote these silks and their exports. Generic and Brand promotion in domestic / overseas markets, product design and diversification through R&D and collaborative projects, upgrading existing production technology, organizing exhibitions in major cities and sponsoring manufacturers to participate in domestic and overseas marketing events and exhibitions shall be focus areas under VSMP and a provision of Rs 1.00 crore has been made for this purpose.

Support Service Sector

Skill Training, Empowerment & Enterprise Development:

Skill Training & Enterprise Development Programmes (STEP)

This component consists of a variety of training modules focusing on various identified training needs of the industry to promote entrepreneurship & empower the farmers, industry partners & other stake holders by sharing relevant information & knowledge, upgrading the desired / required skills, refining various concepts, processes and technologies. It is envisaged to organize a total of 60 training programmes with the overall budgetary allocation of Rs.1.00 crore.

Beneficiary Empowerment Programme (BEP)

The Beneficiary Empowerment Programme (BEP) consisting of farmers and stakeholders training would be conducted by respective State Govt.. in association with CSB to address the training needs and skill gaps of the industry stakeholders. It is envisaged to cover around 4000 persons with a financial allocation of Rs.1.34 crore.

Establishment of Sericulture Resource Centre (SRC)

These training cum facilitation centres will act as an important link between Extension Centres of R&D labs and beneficiaries. It will be managed by selected lead/ elite farmers or any ‘not for profit’ organizations, Seri-Societies etc for the benefit of cluster farmers/sericulturist.  It is envisaged to establish and run 16 such SRC with a total financial allocation of Rs.2.74 Crores